Celebrating our 125th annual Pioneer Picnic on Saturday, May 1, 2021!
WLRN 91.3 FM | By Madeline FoxPublished August 21, 2020
The postal system is a small miracle. Planes, trains and postal automobiles bring letters around the country for less than a dollar.
There’s also the matter of the role they play providing letters, paychecks, bills and facilitating voting in the middle of the coronavirus pandemic. That importance was just on display as we saw a record number of vote-by-mail ballots cast in Florida’s primary election, earlier this week.
And it used to be much more difficult — and dangerous — to deliver mail in South Florida back at the end of the 19th century.
The opening crawl of the 1951 film “The Barefoot Mailman” romanticizes early Florida’s postal system. “By 1890, the last frontier of America was not in the West, but in Southern Florida. The outpost settlements of Miami and Palm Beach — isolated by swampland and jungle — depended for communication on the U.S. Mail — which in turn depended upon...” it reads before panning to a strolling, barefoot man carrying a pack labeled “U.S. Mail.”
It’s a rather poetic tribute for a movie that spends fairly little time focusing on pioneer Florida’s mail — the beach-strolling mailman, played by Jerome Courtland, is more an aw-shucks country boy foil to Robert Cummings’ suave gentleman con man than center of attention himself.
In fact, some who knew the very real barefoot mailman Courtland’s character was based on — Charlie Pierce — took issue with the portrayal. Historian and attorney Harvey Oyer, Pierce’s great-nephew, remembers his great-grandmother making her displeasure known to Theodore Pratt, who wrote the book that formed the basis of the 1951 movie.
“Lillie, Charlie’s sister, my great-grandmother, was very angry with Theodore Pratt,” he remembers. “[She] actually would follow him to some of his book lectures and heckle him from the crowd because she didn't appreciate Pratt portraying him to the rest of America as some uneducated, Tarzan type of guy in the jungles of Florida.”
The Historical Society of Palm Beach County lists 20 people who served as the postal carriers between modern Palm Beach County and points north and modern Miami-Dade.
For seven years, beginning in December 1884, the beach walkers – as they were better known before Pratt’s book popularized the term “barefoot mailman” — walked, rowed and sailed the roughly 68 mile trek along Florida’s southeast coast every week for $600 a year.
It wasn’t for the faint of heart.
“In the seven year history of the barefoot mail route, no mail carrier ever attempted to renew their contract,” Oyer said. “At the end of the year, they all said, ‘No thanks,’ even though $600 a year was a really good salary.”
The mailmen’s route started in Palm Beach at first, and then later on Hypoluxo Island — right by Charlie Pierce’s home.
Oyer said neither Pierce nor his neighbor Andrew Garnett had intended to be full-time barefoot mailmen. Getting the U.S. Postal Service contract required beach walkers to have two others promise to walk the route in their place if anything prevented them walking the weekly journey. Garnett and Pierce were backup to their neighbor, Kentucky transplant Ed Hamilton, whose disappearance in the line of duty made him one of the most legendary barefoot mailmen.
The cause of Hamilton’s disappearance remains undetermined. His clothes were found on the northern side of the Hillsboro Inlet, leading many to surmise that he’d gotten to the water to swim to the boat that should have been parked on his side of the river, but was missing. One theory is that he met a very Florida fate — eaten by alligators.
“It’s still one of the greatest unsolved mysteries in Florida history,” Oyer said.
Hamilton’s disappearance underscores one important fact about the barefoot mailmen – they were on their own against whatever South Florida could throw at them. They had to pack enough for three days’ and 68 miles journey down, then the same back. That meant gators, bears, panthers and the entire breadth of Florida weather.
As Oyer put it, it really put the USPS motto of “neither wind, nor snow, nor hail, nor dead of night…” to the test.
“They could never be late or they were docked part of their pay,” he said. “It didn't matter if it was 30 degrees outside,100 degrees outside, a tropical storm, you had to go.”
The carriers hugged the coast on their walk down from either Palm Beach or Hypoluxo Island. About 40 of their 68 miles each way were on foot, with the remaining journey done over water — they kept boats at one end to cross the inlets at Lake Worth, Hillsboro — where Hamilton disappeared — and then-New River, now-Fort Lauderdale.
Once they got to the top of Biscayne Bay, at the area now called Haulover Beach, the mailmen would sail down to modern-day downtown Miami. They’d spend nights on the way down at Houses of Refuge in Delray Beach and Fort Lauderdale — havens for shipwrecked sailors and travelers that used to line the Florida coast.
Once they’d dropped off the mail in Miami, the mailmen would spend the night and then start back up — three days’ travel down, three days’ travel back, and a day of rest on Sunday before they’d start again.
Part of the original Barefoot Mailman route lives on in an annual hike organized by the South Florida council of the Boy Scouts.
The Scouts start gathering around 5 a.m. in a parking lot in Pompano Beach, just south of the Hillsboro Inlet where barefoot mailman Ed Hamilton disappeared. From there, they walk about half of the mailmen’s original route, some 34 miles mostly along A1A and Ocean Drive.
“It’s really long,” opined Isaac Edward, a 13-year-old Scout who was walking his first full Barefoot Mailman. “And it’s not fun the second day.”
Edward walked the shorter, second-day-only part of the hike in 2019 — a route the Boy Scouts call the “Big Toe.” The Scouts who hike it tend to do the full trip only once — Edward said what excites him most about the hike is not having to do it again.
The volunteers, though, return year after year. Hike organizer Frank Kimball has been leading the trip for the majority of its 56 years, and can easily rattle off Barefoot Mailman history. Karen Robinson and Linda Leasburg-Kramer, who checked in each troop and passed out information and parking passes for the cars that would carry extra water, kept coming back long after their own boys had aged out of Scouting.
“I started this when my son was in Scouting,and I think he did his first hike when he was 12 or 13 years old,” Leasburg-Kramer recalled. “He turns 30 this year. He’s not even in Scouting anymore – he doesn’t even live in Miami!”
About 190 people walked the full Barefoot Mailman Hike on Feb. 1 and 2, despite rainy conditions and worse traffic than usual because of Super Bowl LIV.
Hiker Raisa Falero-Company rattled off a list of supplies packed into her backpack — a sleeping bag, extra clothes, sunblock — as well as extra precautions for the rainy forecast.
“I brought a poncho, and also a poncho for my bag — just in case,” she said. “And I brought extra shoes in case it rains.”
The hikers, much like the original mailmen, have to carry everything they need except extra water, which they can get from their support vehicles during the hike. Thanks to Florida’s development over the past 127 years, they’re much less likely to have to fend off bears, gators and panthers than the original beach walkers.
They left in staggered groups, each with one mailbag carrying letters the hikers had addressed to themselves. In honor of South Florida’s original mail carriers, the U.S. Postal Service stamps each letter upon receipt with a special commemorative postmark.
The Barefoot Mailman legacy lives on in other ways in South Florida. Several parks along the original route — including on the Hillsboro Inlet, where Hamilton vanished — have statues honoring the Barefoot Mailmen. A motel in Lantana took the Barefoot Mailman name, and has a robust history of the beach walkers on its website. Dania Beach hosts a “Barefoot Mailman Classic” run, with runners taking the 5K or 10K routes either shod or shoeless.
Harvey Oyer, the attorney and great-nephew of mailman Charlie Pierce, writes children’s books about his great-uncle and the pioneer days of South Florida — including one called “The Barefoot Mailman.” They’re taught as part of many fourth grade history curriculums, and are pretty well-loved by the students they’re assigned to.
“I've been sent at least a dozen photographs by parents of, they tucked their kid in bed and come back and their kid is under the covers with a flashlight reading the book,” Oyer said.
Mail in South Florida has changed tremendously since the seven-year era of the beach walkers. A road constructed in 1893 between Jupiter and Miami made it possible to send the mail via stage, which was much faster and less labor-intensive. Over time, the mail system in South Florida changed into its modern iteration – most of the areas the barefoot mailmen passed on their route now have their own post offices, which process thousands of letters and parcels each day.
When Pierce, Hamilton and Garnett walked the route, they could fit all the mail coming from the northern tip of the Keys to the St. Lucie River in a single pack.
“I don’t think you could fit all the mail for my block in one mailbag today,” Oyer said.
The words, “barefoot mailman”, evoke an interest and the listener wants to hear more.
Before there were any settlers on Lake Worth, there was some mail service to South Florida but it was slow and uncertain. In 1835, during the Seminole War, “Long John” Holman carried the mail from St. Augustine to Biscayne Bay, walking the beach by night and hiding in caves during the day. The caves were in the outcroppings of rock back from the beach, running out under the beach, with the entrance on the west side of what is now AlA. Florida bears didn’t hibernate but did use the caves.
From 1 July 1867 to 3 June 1868, Route #6451 began in New Smyrna with stops at Sand Point (Titusville), Indian River (Fort Pierce), Jupiter, Miami and Key West. The next year the route began in St. Augustine, with stops at Mantanzas, Palmetto and Port Orange before getting to Sand Point. The schedule called for a trip twice a month and return. Travel was by boat. W.H. Gleason of Miami was the mail contractor for that route.
Those who had settled on the shores of Lake Worth by the 1 870s had to depend on receiving mail whenever a trustworthy traveler brought it from Jupiter. As late as 1885, when Andrew Garnett came to Hypoluxo with two friends, there were still no roads, railroads or intracoastal waterway To send a letter the sixty miles to Miami, the letter had to go by boat to Jacksonville, by railroad to Cedar Keys on the West Coast north of Tampa, by steamer to Key West, and by schooner to Biscayne Bay where it was thrown overboard to be picked up by a smaller vessel which had been waiting for it. To have gone south the sixty miles would have meant a dangerous trip in a small boat on the open sea or a walk along the water’s edge with the problem of crossing two inlets.
Such a route along the beach known as the “Barefoot Mail Route” was established in 1885. Officially it was a Star Route. This meant that there was a contractor who was responsible for providing the carrier and overseeing the route. Theodore Pratt was the first to use the term “Barefoot Mailman” when he wrote a novel of that title.
E.R. Bradley of Lantana took the first job as carrier over the route that ran from Hypoluxo to Ft. Dallas, near the mouth of the Miami River. His son, Louis, carried the mail every other week.
The mail that arrived in Jupiter via boats on the Indian River was carried the seven miles south to Juno by a stage or hack line (mule and wagon) until the coming of the “Celestial Railroad” in July of 1889. In Juno the mail was transferred to a sailboat or steamer that made stops at the post offices scattered along the shores of Lake Worth. These were Lake Worth Village (near the inlet), Oak Lawn (Riviera), Palm Beach (near the site of the Flagler Museum), Figulus (the Potter place just south of the Bath and Tennis Club), and Jewell (Lake Worth). Lantana had an office after August 1889 and Hypoluxo since 1886.
When the Barefoot Route began, the carrier had to go to the Palm Beach office to pick up the mail destined for Miami. In 1886 the route was shortened by ten miles when Hypoluxo became the southern terminus of the route which had brought the mail from the north. Now he could wait for the mail to come to him.
The barefoot mailman took three days for the trip south, three days to return, with Sunday as a day of rest. The first night was spent at the Orange Grove House of Refuge (Delray Beach) which was only 5 miles south of his starting point. Early in the afternoon the mailman would be taken by boat from Garnett’s (the Hypoluxo postoffice was in his home) to the foot of the lake where he crossed the ridge near the site of the Boynton (South Lake Worth) Inlet to begin the first leg of his journey.
The second day’s journey was a twenty-five mile walk along the beach, at the edge of the water where the sand is the firmest. That day he had to cross the Hillsborough Inlet. At the end of the day he had reached the New River House of Refuge. This was located near the present day Hugh Taylor Birch State Park in Fort Lauderdale. There were no settlers in the area in the 1880s.
The mail carrier began the third day by rowing four miles on New River to the New River Inlet, which at that date was near present day Bahia Mar, north of Port Everglades. From the south side of that inlet it was a ten mile walk to the north end of Biscayne Bay (near Baker’s Haulover.) It was hilly and the hardest part of his walk. The fifth house of refuge was in that vicinity but it was farther south, off the beaten track. The carriers seldom visited there. From the north end of the bay the mailman had a mile trip by boat to Ft. Dallas, near the mouth of the Miami River. A sailboat was used but in the event of a lack of wind, the carrier was expected to row.
Charles Pierce, who at one time carried the mail, says in Pioneer Life in Southeast Florida that it was a 136 mile round trip: 56 by boat and 80 miles on foot For this the men were paid $600 per year and they were docked if they missed a trip. Boats were hidden at the inlets for the exclusive use of the mail carrier. The occasional traveler wishing to make the trip to or from Miami would pay $5.00 as a “foot passenger” for the privilege of walking with the mailman. This afforded the traveler company, protection, and a means of crossing the streams and inlets.
Ed Hamilton, one of the “Kentucky boys” of Hypoluxo, took over the route in the fall of 1887. George H.K. Charters was the mail contractor at that time. Hamilton’s service was to be cut short as, on October 11, when he reached the Hillsborough Inlet, his boat was on the south side of the inlet. When he did not return at the appointed time, Charters and Steve Andrews, keeper of the Orange Grove House of Refuge, went looking for him. Andrews had told Hamilton that a stranger had gone down the beach a few days before him and that Andrews had warned him not to use the boat; it was government property At the inlet, the two men found the mail pouch hanging in a tree and Hamilton’s clothes nearby, indicating that he had tried to swim the inlet to retrieve the boat. There were periods when the inlet was shallow enough to wade across but on this occasion the inlet was swollen from recent rains and was swarming with alligators. Some believed Hamilton was killed by alligators, others by sharks. His body was never found. It was later learned that a stranger had visited another house of refuge. When asked how he had crossed the inlet, he made up a story which later proved false. He was tried, but not convicted, of tampering with Hamilton’s boat.
Andrew Garnett took the route after the death of Hamilton with the understanding that Charles Pierce would carry the mail on occasion. Other early mail carriers were H.J. Burkhardt of Palm Beach and several short time carriers from the Biscayne area. Many of the settlers became mailmen and later postmasters in order to earn cash, a scarce commodity on the lake. The Barefoot Route lasted from 1885 to 1893, at which time a hack or stage line was established between Lantana and Lemon City.
Drawing of barefoot mailman--likely Charlie Pierce (Photo from boyntonbeach.com)
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